This data frame contains a very reduced version of version 12 of the V-Dem dataset, including only the 7 main indexes that measure democracy directly (v2x_polyarchy, v2x_libdem, v2x_partipdem, v2x_delibdem, v2x_egaldem, v2x_api, and v2x_mpi) and their associated uncertainty measures. The full VDem dataset is available via the vdemdata package. To cite VDem, use Coppedge, Michael, John Gerring, Carl Henrik Knutsen, Staffan I. Lindberg, Jan Teorell, Nazifa Alizada, David Altman, Michael Bernhard, Agnes Cornell, M. Steven Fish, Lisa Gastaldi, Haakon Gjerløw, Adam Glynn, Sandra Grahn, Allen Hicken, Garry Hindle, Nina Ilchenko, Katrin Kinzelbach, Joshua Krusell, Kyle L. Marquardt, Kelly McMann, Valeriya Mechkova, Juraj Medzihorsky, Pamela Paxton, Daniel Pemstein, Josefine Pernes, Oskar Rydén, Johannes von Römer, Brigitte Seim, Rachel Sigman, Svend-Erik Skaaning, Jeffrey Staton, Aksel Sundström, Eitan Tzelgov, Yi-ting Wang, Tore Wig, Steven Wilson and Daniel Ziblatt. 2022. "V- Dem [Country–Year/Country–Date] Dataset v12" Varieties of Democracy (V-Dem) Project. https://doi.org/10.23696/vdemds22.

vdem_simple

Format

An object of class tbl_df (inherits from tbl, data.frame) with 27380 rows and 54 columns.

Details

Variable descriptions taken from the V-Dem codebook directly.

V-Dem Identifiers

vdem_country_name

Country name. Name of coded country. A V-Dem country is a political unit enjoying at least some degree of functional and/or formal sovereignty.

country_text_id

Country name abbreviation. Abbreviated country names.

country_id

V-Dem country ID. Unique country ID designated for each country.

year

Year. Four-digit designation of the year for which an observation is given that ranges from the start to the end of the coding period.

historical_date

Historical Date. Variable designating the date for which observation is given. The date is coded in YYYY-MM-DD format. December 31 observation always refers to the situation at the end of the year. There can be observations on other dates signifying other events, i.e. elections or executive appointments.

project

V-Dem Project. Indication what project team has coded country in respective year.

historical

Historical V-Dem Coding. Binary indication whether the country in question has been coded by the team of Historical V-Dem project.

histname

Time-specific name of coded country. Many countries go by different names in different time-periods, for example due to name changes, changes in territory, colonization, occupation, or independence. This variable contains a brief description of the identity of each polity that comprises a country's history. This variable is based on the V-Dem Country Coding Units document.

codingstart

Start of coding period. Year in which coding of the country in question starts. V-Dem country coding starts in 1789, or from when a country first enjoyed at least some degree of functional and/or formal sovereignty.

codingend

End of coding period. Either a maximum year of country coding period or the year when the country ceased to exist because it lost functional or formal sovereignty.

codingstart_contemporary

Contemporary start of coding period. Year in which the coding of Contemporary V-Dem project starts. Variables from "Contemporary" project can have different question formulation, variable type, or number of coders as opposed to the "Historical" one.

codingend_contemp

Historical End of Coding Period. Year in which the coding of Contemporary V-Dem project ends. Variables from the "Contemporary" project can have different question formulation, variable type, or number of coders as opposed to the "Historical" one.

codingstart_hist

Historical start of coding period. Year in which the coding of Historical V-Dem project starts. Variables from ``Historical'' project can have different question formulation, variable type, or number of coders as opposed to the "Contemporary" one.

codingend_hist

Historical End of Coding Period. Year in which the coding of Historical V-Dem project ends. Variables from "Historical" project can have different question formulation, variable type, or number of coders as opposed to the "Contemporary" one.

gapstart1, gapstart2, gapstart3

Time periods when a country does not fulfill V-Dem's coding period criteria are not coded. The date that indicates the gap start is the last date coded before the gap. For more details about V-Dem country coding periods, please see the V-Dem Country Coding Units document.

gapend1, gapend2, gapend3

The periods of when a country does not fulfill V-Dem's coding period criteria are not coded. The date that indicates the gap end is the first date coded after the gap. For more details about V-Demcountry coding periods, please see the V-Dem Country Coding Units document.

gap_index

An index for each country and continuous non-gap, i.e. it is reasonable for interpolation to interpolate only within the same gap index. For more details about V-Dem country coding periods, please see the V-Dem Country Coding Units document.

vdem_cowcode

COW Country Code. Correlates of War (COW) project country codes.

V-Dem Main Indexes

Each of the indexes described below comes with associated uncertainty measures: _codehigh and _codelow (the interval where the V-Dem Bayesian measurement model places 68% of the probability mass, or approximately one standard deviation upper and lower bounds, possibly asymmetric) and _sd (frequentist standard deviation).

v2x_polyarchy

Electoral democracy index. To what extent is the ideal of electoral democracy in its fullest sense achieved? The electoral principle of democracy seeks to embody the core value of making rulers responsive to citizens, achieved through electoral competition for the electorate's approval under circumstances when suffrage is extensive; political and civil society organizations can operate freely; elections are clean and not marred by fraud or systematic irregularities; and elections affect the composition of the chief executive of the country. In between elections, there is freedom of expression and an independent media capable of presenting alternative views on matters of political relevance. In the V-Dem conceptual scheme, electoral democracy is understood as an essential element of any other conception of representative democracy --- liberal, participatory, deliberative, egalitarian, or some other.

v2x_libdem

Liberal democracy index. To what extent is the ideal of liberal democracy achieved?

The liberal principle of democracy emphasizes the importance of protecting individual and minority rights against the tyranny of the state and the tyranny of the majority. The liberal model takes a ~negative~ view of political power insofar as it judges the quality of democracy by the limits placed on government. This is achieved by constitutionally protected civil liberties, strong rule of law, an independent judiciary, and effective checks and balances that, together, limit the exercise of executive power. To make this a measure of liberal democracy, the index also takes the level of electoral democracy into account.

v2x_delibdem

Deliberative democracy index. To what extent is the ideal of deliberative democracy achieved?

The deliberative principle of democracy focuses on the process by which decisions are reached in a polity. A deliberative process is one in which public reasoning focused on the common good motivates political decisions—as contrasted with emotional appeals, solidary attachments, parochial interests, or coercion. According to this principle, democracy requires more than an aggregation of existing preferences. There should also be respectful dialogue at all levels—from preference formation to final decision—among informed and competent participants who are open to persuasion. To make it a measure of not only the deliberative principle but also of democracy, the index also takes the level of electoral democracy into account.

v2x_partipdem

Participatory democracy index. To what extent is the ideal of participatory democracy achieved?

The participatory principle of democracy emphasizes active participation by citizens in all political processes, electoral and non-electoral. It is motivated by uneasiness about a bedrock practice of electoral democracy: delegating authority to representatives. Thus, direct rule by citizens is preferred, wherever practicable. This model of democracy thus takes suffrage for granted, emphasizing engagement in civil society organizations, direct democracy, and subnational elected bodies. To make it a measure of participatory democracy, the index also takes the level of electoral democracy into account.

v2x_mpi

Multiplicative polyarchy index. To what extent is the electoral principle of democracy achieved?

The electoral principle of democracy seeks to achieve responsiveness and accountability between leaders and citizens through the mechanism of competitive elections. This is presumed to be achieved when suffrage is extensive; political and civil society organizations can operate freely; elections are clean and not marred by fraud or systematic irregularities; and the chief executive of a country is selected directly or indirectly through elections.

v2x_egaldem

Egalitarian democracy index. To what extent is the ideal of egalitarian democracy achieved?

The egalitarian principle of democracy holds that material and immaterial inequalities inhibit the exercise of formal rights and liberties, and diminish the ability of citizens from all social groups to participate. Egalitarian democracy is achieved when 1) rights and freedoms of individuals are protected equally across all social groups; and 2) resources are distributed equally across all social groups; 3) groups and individuals enjoy equal access to power. To make it a measure of egalitarian democracy, the index also takes the level of electoral democracy into account.

v2x_api

Additive polyarchy index. To what extent is the electoral principle of democracy achieved?

electoral principle of democracy seeks to achieve responsiveness and accountability between leaders and citizens through the mechanism of competitive elections. This is presumed to be achieved when suffrage is extensive; political and civil society organizations can operate freely; elections are clean and not marred by fraud or systematic irregularities; and the chief executive of a country is selected directly or indirectly through elections.

Standard descriptive variables (generated by this package)

extended_country_name

The name of the country in the Gleditsch-Ward system of states, or the official name of the entity (for non-sovereign entities and states not in the Gleditsch and Ward system of states) or else a common name for disputed cases that do not have an official name (e.g., Western Sahara, Hyderabad). The Gleditsch and Ward scheme sometimes indicates the common name of the country and (in parentheses) the name of an earlier incarnation of the state: thus, they have Germany (Prussia), Russia (Soviet Union), Madagascar (Malagasy), etc. For details, see Gleditsch, Kristian S. & Michael D. Ward. 1999. "Interstate System Membership: A Revised List of the Independent States since 1816." International Interactions 25: 393-413. The list can be found at http://privatewww.essex.ac.uk/~ksg/statelist.html.

GWn

Gleditsch and Ward's numeric country code, from the Gleditsch and Ward list of independent states.

cown

The Correlates of War numeric country code, 2016 version. This differs from Gleditsch and Ward's numeric country code in a few cases. See http://www.correlatesofwar.org/data-sets/state-system-membership for the full list.

in_GW_system

Whether the state is "in system" (that is, is independent and sovereign), according to Gleditsch and Ward, for this particular date. Matches at the end of the year; so, for example South Vietnam 1975 is FALSE because, according to Gleditsch and Ward, the country ended on April 1975 (being absorbed by North Vietnam). It is also TRUE for dates beyond 2012 for countries that did not end by then, depsite the fact that the Gleditsch and Ward list has not been updated since.

References

Coppedge, Michael, John Gerring, Carl Henrik Knutsen, Staffan I. Lindberg, Jan Teorell, Nazifa Alizada, David Altman, Michael Bernhard, Agnes Cornell, M. Steven Fish, Lisa Gastaldi, Haakon Gjerløw, Adam Glynn, Sandra Grahn, Allen Hicken, Garry Hindle, Nina Ilchenko, Katrin Kinzelbach, Joshua Krusell, Kyle L. Marquardt, Kelly McMann, Valeriya Mechkova, Juraj Medzihorsky, Pamela Paxton, Daniel Pemstein, Josefine Pernes, Oskar Rydén, Johannes von Römer, Brigitte Seim, Rachel Sigman, Svend-Erik Skaaning, Jeffrey Staton, Aksel Sundström, Eitan Tzelgov, Yi-ting Wang, Tore Wig, Steven Wilson and Daniel Ziblatt. 2022. "V- Dem [Country–Year/Country–Date] Dataset v12" Varieties of Democracy (V-Dem) Project. https://doi.org/10.23696/vdemds22.