This dataset updates pacl with more countries and coverage from 1950 to 2020, as described in C. Bjørnskov and M. Rode. "Regime types and regime change: A new dataset on democracy, coups, and political institutions". In: The Review of International Organizations 15.2 (2020), pp. 531-551. DOI: 10.1007/s11558-019-09345-1. The full data and codebook can be downloaded here http://www.christianbjoernskov.com/bjoernskovrodedata/. The documentation below is directly copied from the codebook.
An object of class
tbl_df (inherits from
data.frame) with 14768 rows and 46 columns.
C. Bjørnskov and M. Rode. "Regime types and regime change: A new dataset on democracy, coups, and political institutions". In: The Review of International Organizations 15.2 (2020), pp. 531-551. DOI: 10.1007/s11558-019-09345-1. The full data and codebook can be downloaded here http://www.christianbjoernskov.com/bjoernskovrodedata/
Country name in the original dataset.
Three letter ISO country code.
Numeric regime category, following Cheibub, Ghandi and Vreeland (2010) (Parliamentary democracies = 0, Mixed democracies (with weak presidents) = 1, Presidential democracies = 2, Civilian autocracies = 3, Military dictatorships = 4, and Royal dictatorships = 5)
Regime category label, following Cheibub, Ghandi and Vreeland (2010) (Parliamentary democracies = 0, Mixed democracies (with weak presidents) = 1, Presidential democracies = 2, Civilian autocracies = 3, Military dictatorships = 4, and Royal dictatorships = 5)
Is the country a hereditary monarchy? (Monarchy = 1, Republic = 0)
Is the country a member of the British Commonwealth? (Commonwealth = 1, Other = 0)
Name of the monarch.
Year of accession of the monarch.
Year of birth of the monarch.
Is the monarch female? (No=0, Yes=1)
Is the country democratic or not? following Cheibub, Ghandi and Vreeland (2010) (Democracy = 1, Autocracy = 0) Dichotomous indicator of democracy based on a minimalist definition. A country is defined as democratic, if elections were conducted, these were free and fair, and if there was a peaceful turnover of legislative and executive offices following those elections.
Is the political system presidential? (No=0, Yes=1)
Name of the president.
Accession year of the president.
Year of birth of the president.
Is the president interim / preliminary? (more than 2 Presidents/year=1, Otherwise=0)
Is the president female? (No=0, Yes=1)
Is the country a colony? (No=0, Yes=1)
If colony, which country is the colonial power? Country name of the colonial power.
If colony, which country is the colonial administrator?
Is the country's regime communist / socialist? (No=0, Yes=1)
Regime Change lag (No=0, Yes=1) If a coded event, such as a change in the Presidency, took place after 01.07 it is assigned to the following calendar year in the data. In this case, the lag variable will be equal to one. For all change events before that date, the lag dummy is equal to zero.
Average of geographical neighbors' Democracy score
Numeric country ID. Undocumented in original codebook.
Total number of chambers in parliament.
Is the electoral system characterized by including proportional representation? (No=0, Yes=1)
Electoral system. Can be FPTP, List PR (large multi-member), List PR, Parallel SMD/PR, List PR (small multi-member), PR, Mixed member SMD/PR, FPTP and appointed, List PR(small multi-member), Some form of FPTP, SNTV, National list, STV, Single-member constituency, Party list PR, Bloc voting, Multiple vote, FPTP and bloc voting, FPTP and Hare quota, Hagenbasch-Bischoff, Appointed, List PR(large multi-member), IRV, Multi-seat PR, Plurality-at-large / d'Hondt, d'Hondt and Saint algue, List PR (small multi-party), Mix, Some form of PR, Proportional representation, Multi-member constituencies, Block Vote, Mix of appointment and local election, d'Hondt, FPTP / PR, Borda count, Single-member plurality, FPTP and reserved, PR / Sainte-Laguë, Mixed member majoritarian, Two-round FPTP, Endorsement, Most multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, PR and nomination, Two round single-member constituencies, Ethnic FPTP, FPTP / Bloc voting, FPTP / Party list, Half single constituency, half PR, Indirectly elected by the provincial people's congresses, Multi- and single-seat constituency, Closed-list proportional representation, Lists, FPTP, party list multi member constituency, Two round absolute majority, All appointed, Closed list PR, Single list, Appointed by Basic Peoples Congresses, Mix PR and functional constituencies, MMP / FPTP, FPTP in two colleges, PR and appointed, Multiple non-transferable vote system, Single-member constituencies majority, One constituency, d'Hondt, Partially-open list proportional representation, majority bonus, Party list and FPTP, PR and Droop quota, PR Hare quota, FPTP and proportional, Simple majority constituency, Closed list proportional representation, List PR and appointment, Simple majority, one constituency, Sainte-Laguë, Single constituency, Party-list proportional representation, Party list, Two-round, Elected and single-member constituency, FPTP / appointed, Mixed Member SDM/PR, Party list majority, PR / FPTP, Single-seat constituencies, FPTP and reserved seats, Indirect through eight regional colleges, Largest remainder, Party list proportional representation, Two round single seat constituency, Appointed by clans, Open party-list proportional representation, Plurality party-list system, Elected by people's district assemblies, FPTP and nomination, Mixed, Most appointed, FPTP and party list, Most in open list multi member constituencies, Multi-seat constituency majority, Mainly appointed, Nominated by parties, FPTP after some appointed, Mixed PR / FPTP, Single seat constituency, Elected by provincial assemblies, FPTP and d'Hondt, Mixed appointment and unknown, FPTP and appointment, Single-seat constituency, Som form of FPTP, Elected by colleges, Half elected by local councils and half by corporations, Majority party list, Panchayat system, PR and FPTP, Seven-stage process, FPTP and PR, FPTP within two colleges, Appointed by governor, FPTP, multi member constituency, Multi-seat constituency, Party nominees, Mix nominated and unknown, Mixed member SMD/PR with large bonus, Single list of candidates, Parallel SMP/PR, Party Block vote, Single constituency majority, Unknown, FPTP and nominated, Limited Vote, Mixed-member SMD/PR, Multi-member constituencies. Single Transferable Vote, PR in 15 of 26 constituencies; Bloc voting, Two-round single-member constituency, 346 elected by municipal citizens, 181 chosen by 'social sectors', Election in two colleges, Party-list proportional representation., Single electoral college, SNTV and appointed, ?, Coopted, List P (large multi-member), Selected by committee, Single district.
If bicameral parliament, total number of members in lower house.
If bicameral parliament, total number of members in upper house.
If tricameral parliament, total number of members in third house.
Whether a new constitution was implemented (No=0, Yes=1)
Whether electoral system attributes full suffrage. (No=0, Yes=1)
If no full suffrage, kind of suffrage restriction
Alternative democracy indicator capturing degree of multi-party competition (No elections=0, Single-party elections=1, non-democratic multi-party elections=2, democratic elections= 3)
Average of geographical neighbors' electoral.
Whether there's an alternation in power after election. Undocumented in original codebook.
Whether the elections are multiparty. Undocumented in original codebook.
Whether the elections are free and fair. Undocumented in original codebook.
Year of parliamentary election. Undocumented in original codebook.
Month and year of parliamentary election. Undocumented in original codebook.
Whether the election was postponed. Undocumented in original codebook.
The name of the country in the Gleditsch-Ward system of states, or the official name of the entity (for non-sovereign entities and states not in the Gleditsch and Ward system of states) or else a common name for disputed cases that do not have an official name (e.g., Western Sahara, Hyderabad). The Gleditsch and Ward scheme sometimes indicates the common name of the country and (in parentheses) the name of an earlier incarnation of the state: thus, they have Germany (Prussia), Russia (Soviet Union), Madagascar (Malagasy), etc. For details, see Gleditsch, Kristian S. & Michael D. Ward. 1999. "Interstate System Membership: A Revised List of the Independent States since 1816." International Interactions 25: 393-413. The list can be found at http://privatewww.essex.ac.uk/~ksg/statelist.html.
Gleditsch and Ward's numeric country code, from the Gleditsch and Ward list of independent states.
The Correlates of War numeric country code, 2016 version. This differs from Gleditsch and Ward's numeric country code in a few cases. See http://www.correlatesofwar.org/data-sets/state-system-membership for the full list.
Whether the state is "in system" (that is, is
independent and sovereign), according to Gleditsch and Ward, for this
particular date. Matches at the end of the year; so, for example South
Vietnam 1975 is
FALSE because, according to Gleditsch and Ward, the
country ended on April 1975 (being absorbed by North Vietnam). It is also
TRUE for dates beyond 2012 for countries that did not end by then, depsite
the fact that the Gleditsch and Ward list has not been updated since.