Trichotomous democracy indicator from Mainwaring, Scott, Daniel Brinks, and Anibal Perez Linan. 2008. "Political Regimes in Latin America, 1900-2007." Original data used to be available from http://kellogg.nd.edu/scottmainwaring/Political_Regimes.pdf, though no longer.

mainwaring

mainwaring_pmm

Format

An object of class tbl_df (inherits from tbl, data.frame) with 2156 rows and 14 columns.

An object of class tbl_df (inherits from tbl, data.frame) with 835 rows and 7 columns.

Source

Mainwaring, S., D. Brinks and A. Perez-Linan. 2001. "Classifying Political Regimes in Latin America." Studies in Comparative International Development 36(1): 37-65.

Pemstein, Daniel, Stephen A. Meserve, and James Melton. 2013. "Replication data for: Democratic Compromise: A Latent Variable Analysis of Ten Measures of Regime Type." In: Harvard Dataverse. http://hdl.handle.net/1902.1/PMM.

Variables

mainwaring_country

The original country name.

year

The calendar year.

mainwaring

Trichotomous democracy indicator from Mainwaring, Scott, Daniel Brinks, and Anibal Perez Linan. 2008. "Political Regimes in Latin America, 1900-2007." Original data used to be available from http://kellogg.nd.edu/scottmainwaring/Political_Regimes.pdf. 0 = non-democracy, 0.5 = hybrid, 1 = democracy.

Regime

Trichotomous democracy indicator from Mainwaring, Scott, Daniel Brinks, and Anibal Perez Linan. 2008. "Political Regimes in Latin America, 1900-2007." Original data used to be available from http://kellogg.nd.edu/scottmainwaring/Political_Regimes.pdf. A = Authoritarian, D = Democracy, SD = Semidemocracy. From the published article:

When governments commit no violation of any of the four criteria (elections, franchise, civil liberties, and civilian power), they are coded as democratic. They rank as authoritarian if they present one or more major violations or as semi-democratic if they display only partial failures in one or more categories.

Elections

Measure of whether the principle of free and fair elections is violated. MV = major violation, NV = No violation, PV = partial violation. From the published article:

A major violation of this democratic principle occurs if:

  • the head of government or the legislature is not elected.

  • the government uses its resources (patronage, repression, or a combination of both) to ensure electoral victory--i.e., there are systematic complaints about fraud or repression, and there is virtual certainty about the outcome of presidential elections (e.g., Mexico 1945-88, Argentina 1952-55, E1 Salvador 1952-63, Paraguay 1960-89).

  • through fraud, manipulation, or outright repression, the government makes it impossible for a wide gamut of parties to compete (or if they do compete, to take office).

A partial violation occurs if:

  • there are systematic complaints of rigged elections and/or harassment of the opposition but there is still uncertainty about electoral outcomes and the government fails to capture large majorities in the legislature; or the military vetoed a few "unacceptable" but important presidential candidates (e.g., Argentina 1958-66); fraud affected but did not thoroughly skew electoral results; or the elections were conducted under substantially unequal playing rules (e.g., Nicaragua in 1984 because the Sandinistas dominated the media and pressured opposition groups, E1 Salvador in the 1980s because the left faced massive repression).

Franchise

Measure of whether the principle of inclusive franchise is violated. MV = major violation, NV = No violation, PV = partial violation. NA if the electoral principle is coded MV. From the published article:

A major violation of this democratic principle occurs if a large part of the adult population is disenfranchised on ethnic, class, gender, or educational grounds in ways that:

  • likely prevent very different electoral outcomes (or so is widely believed); or

  • are unusually exclusionary for that historical period; or

  • trigger mass social protests.

A partial violation occurs if disenfranchisement of some social groups occurs in ways that are not likely to significantly shape electoral outcomes.

Civil.Liberties

Measure of whether the civil liberties are violated. MV = major violation, NV = No violation, PV = partial violation. NA if the electoral principle is coded MV. From the published article;

A major violation of democratic principles occurs if:

  • gross human rights violations or censorship against opposition media occur systematically; or

  • political parties are not free to organize--i.e., most major parties are banned, just a single party is allowed to exist, or a few parties are tightly controlled by the government (e.g., Panama 1968-1980, Paraguay 1947-59, Brazil 1965-79).

A partial violation occurs if:

  • violations of human rights are less widespread but still affect the opposition's capacity to organize in some geographic areas or some social sectors; or

  • there is intermittent censorship of the media or regular prohibition of one major party or candidate.

Civilian.Power

Measure of whether the elected rulers enjoy real governing capacity (e.g., are not overruled by the military). MV = major violation, NV = No violation, PV = partial violation. NA if the electoral principle is coded MV. From the published article:

A major violation of this democratic principle occurs if:

  • military leaders or the military as an institution openly dominate major policy areas not strictly related to the armed forces; or

  • if the elected head of government is a puppet, such that the electoral process does not really determine who governs.

A partial violation occurs if military leaders or the military as an institution are able to veto important policies in a few areas not related to the armed forces (e.g., Ecuador 1961-62).

From

First year of the regime.

To

Last year of the regime.

Standard descriptive variables (generated by this package)

extended_country_name

The name of the country in the Gleditsch-Ward system of states, or the official name of the entity (for non-sovereign entities and states not in the Gleditsch and Ward system of states) or else a common name for disputed cases that do not have an official name (e.g., Western Sahara, Hyderabad). The Gleditsch and Ward scheme sometimes indicates the common name of the country and (in parentheses) the name of an earlier incarnation of the state: thus, they have Germany (Prussia), Russia (Soviet Union), Madagascar (Malagasy), etc. For details, see Gleditsch, Kristian S. & Michael D. Ward. 1999. "Interstate System Membership: A Revised List of the Independent States since 1816." International Interactions 25: 393-413. The list can be found at http://privatewww.essex.ac.uk/~ksg/statelist.html.

GWn

Gleditsch and Ward's numeric country code, from the Gleditsch and Ward list of independent states.

cown

The Correlates of War numeric country code, 2016 version. This differs from Gleditsch and Ward's numeric country code in a few cases. See http://www.correlatesofwar.org/data-sets/state-system-membership for the full list.

in_GW_system

Whether the state is "in system" (that is, is independent and sovereign), according to Gleditsch and Ward, for this particular date. Matches at the end of the year; so, for example South Vietnam 1975 is FALSE because, according to Gleditsch and Ward, the country ended on April 1975 (being absorbed by North Vietnam). It is also TRUE for dates beyond 2012 for countries that did not end by then, depsite the fact that the Gleditsch and Ward list has not been updated since.

Note

The mainwaring_pmm version of this data is taken from from Pemstein, Daniel, Stephen A. Meserve, and James Melton. 2013. "Replication data for: Democratic Compromise: A Latent Variable Analysis of Ten Measures of Regime Type." In: Harvard Dataverse. http://hdl.handle.net/1902.1/PMM. It only contains a numeric version of the Mainwaring Regime indicator, ranging from -1 (Authoritarian) to 0 (Semidemocracy) to 1 (Democracy). The original dataset is found in mainwaring. PMM's replication data is actually missing a fair number of the data points in the original data by Mainwaring et al (Mainwaring, Brinks, and Perez Linan 2008), but the original data is not missing any of their data points, and there are no differences between the data points wherever both the original and the replication data have values. It is included here for completeness.